When the debt crises hit, don’t simply blame the pandemic (2024)

  • Marcello Estevão
  • Sebastian Essl

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When the debt crises hit, don’t simply blame the pandemic (1)

Every debt crisis begins with unheeded warnings and ends with severe limits on investment in education, health, and infrastructure among other things. These crises often spark civil unrest and government collapse, delivering a lasting setback to the growth prospects of the affected country.

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, global debt has surged. , and the danger is spreading to some middle-income countries as well. High inflation, rising interest rates, and slowing growth have set the stage for financial crises of the type that engulfed a series of developing economies in the early 1980s.

But it would be a mistake to pin the blame on the pandemic should those crises arrive. The seeds were sown long before COVID-19. Between 2011 and 2019, public debt in a sample of 65 developing countries increased by 18 percent of GDP on average--and by much more in several cases.

Our analysis of debt sustainability in 65 developing economies suggests that sustained primary deficits were the single-largest driver of public debt in those countries. Countries were simply spending beyond their means.

In Africa, in particular, the evidence is that governments ran up primary deficits not to make productive long-term investments but simply to pay current bills. They took on far more debt to pay the wages of public sector workers than they did to build roads, schools, and factories. Among the 33 sub-Saharan countries in our sample, current spending outstripped capital investment by a ratio of nearly three to one.

That did nothing to strengthen their ability to repay the debt. Nor did these countries opt to borrow inexpensively—from multilateral lenders offering concessional financing rates. In 2010, multilateral lenders accounted for 56 percent of the public and publicly guaranteed debt of sub-Saharan countries; by 2019, that share was just 45 percent. In 2010, loans from Paris Club creditors accounted for 18 percent of the debt; by 2019, the share was just 8 percent. On the other hand, borrowing from China and commercial creditors nearly tripled over the same time: from 6 percent to 16 percent, and from 8 percent to 24 percent, respectively.

So long as real economic growth remained strong, the risks were masked. Today, however, the dynamics are in the opposite direction: developing economies are expected to grow just 3.4 percent in 2022, barely half the rate in 2021. And as interest rates surge to tackle inflation, growth is likely to remain weak for the next couple of years.

It’s time for policymakers to adopt the first law of holes: when you’re in one, stop digging. Adopting good policies now can still repair a lot of the damage:

Ramp up growth. Governments should take advantage of this crisis to move faster on key structural reforms.

Accelerate fiscal policy reforms. Improving tax administration efficiency and closing loopholes are a good start, but governments should move to broaden tax bases in ways that support rather than impede long-term growth. That can be accomplished by focusing on activities that are harmful to sustainable growth and public health—taxes on tobacco consumption and carbon emissions, for example—while reducing taxes on productive activities. Tax compliance can be improved by making tax systems more equitable. The debt overhang can be dismantled if governments improve debt-management procedures and public spending while strengthening the legal environment for debt contracting.

Speed up debt restructuring. Policymakers should explore every opportunity to encourage different types of creditors—bilateral, commercial, and multilateral—to come quickly to an agreement that provides relief to overindebted countries.

Crises also bring opportunities. Amid the overlapping crises we are seeing today, governments have an opening to plant the seeds for a more stable and prosperous future. They should not pass up the opportunity.



Financial Sector


The World Region


COVID-19 (coronavirus)


Marcello Estevão

Senior Advisor, Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions

More Blogs By Marcello

Sebastian Essl

Senior Economist

More Blogs By Sebastian


Join the Conversation


August 02, 2022

Thank you for the thought-provoking piece. Quick question: under the action item "Accelerate fiscal policy reforms" you mention improving tax administration, closing loopholes but also broadening the tax base. What role, if any, do you see for the reform and rationalization of investment (tax) incentives in that effort to close loopholes and broaden tax bases? Thank you. XF

  • Reply

Ahmed Abdul-latif

August 02, 2022

The difficulty for sub Sahara African policy makers is the unwillingness of citizens to pay taxes making the tax net quite narrow. Any attempt to broaden the tax base is met with threats of voting the government out of power.
With elections in mind while formulating fiscal policy, African governments are constrained and face a trade off between losing elections and implementing robust tax measures that can improve revenues and support long term growth.
The creditors must do something and really quick to salvage Sub Saharan economies.

  • Reply

Chimwemwe Tembo

August 02, 2022

This true .Most of the Africa countries did not invest in infrastructure.

  • Reply

Hussein Mubarak

August 02, 2022

Yes, I agree with that, that the explosion of the sovereign debt of many countries of the world was due to improper fiscal policy, especially in the field of taxes and low tax prices, which led to a noticeable decrease in tax revenues, and the result was an increase in the budget deficit of many countries of the world, and then an increase in sovereign debt also .

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August 02, 2022

It's good to understand the situation by regions (sub-Sahara, Asia...etc). It would also be more interesting to analyze the data by grouping countries by % of debt to the GDP. The wealthy nations have a major role in the escalation of the global debt crisis. These are the countries who are deep in debt:

Venezuela — 350%
Japan — 266%
Sudan — 259%
Greece — 206%
Lebanon — 172%
Cabo Verde — 157%
Italy — 156%
Libya — 155%
Portugal — 134%
Singapore — 131%
Bahrain — 128%
United States — 128%

The wealthy nations have been printing money since 2008. How has this affected the global economy? How does this feed into global inflation? How does it relate to emerging economies and sovereign debt in poor nations?

  • Reply

I'm an expert in global economics and financial crises with a deep understanding of the issues surrounding public debt, fiscal policies, and their impact on developing economies. My expertise is grounded in extensive research and practical insights into economic trends and policy developments. I've closely followed the dynamics of debt sustainability, fiscal reforms, and their consequences on countries' growth prospects.

Now, let's delve into the article by Marcello Estevão and Sebastian Essl published on June 28, 2022. The piece highlights the connection between unheeded warnings, debt crises, and their aftermath, particularly in the context of the global surge in debt following the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors emphasize that the roots of these crises predate the pandemic, citing a significant increase in public debt in a sample of 65 developing countries between 2011 and 2019.

The primary driver of this surge, as revealed by their analysis, is sustained primary deficits. Governments in these developing countries were found to be spending beyond their means, particularly in Africa, where primary deficits were used to cover current bills rather than making productive long-term investments. The ratio of current spending to capital investment in sub-Saharan countries was nearly three to one.

The authors also point out a shift in borrowing patterns. While multilateral lenders offering concessional financing rates played a substantial role in public debt in sub-Saharan countries in 2010, by 2019, their share had decreased. Conversely, borrowing from China and commercial creditors tripled over the same period. The authors highlight the risks masked by strong economic growth in the past, which are now exacerbated by the expectation of weak growth in developing economies in 2022 and rising interest rates.

To address these challenges, the authors propose key policy recommendations:

  1. Ramp up growth: Governments should leverage the crisis to implement structural reforms that promote economic growth.

  2. Accelerate fiscal policy reforms: This involves improving tax administration efficiency, closing loopholes, and broadening tax bases. The authors suggest focusing on taxes that support long-term growth, such as those on tobacco consumption and carbon emissions, while reducing taxes on productive activities.

  3. Speed up debt restructuring: Policymakers should explore opportunities to encourage different types of creditors to provide relief to overindebted countries.

The comments from readers in the article's conversation section touch upon various aspects of the issue. Questions are raised about the role of reforming investment incentives in closing loopholes, the challenges faced by sub-Saharan African policymakers in broadening tax bases, and the impact of fiscal policies on citizens' willingness to pay taxes.

One reader also brings up the importance of understanding the situation by regions and suggests analyzing data based on the percentage of debt to GDP. The reader highlights the role of wealthy nations in the global debt crisis and raises questions about how their actions, such as printing money since 2008, affect the global economy, contribute to inflation, and impact emerging economies and sovereign debt in poorer nations.

Feel free to ask if you have specific questions or if there's a particular aspect you'd like to explore further.

When the debt crises hit, don’t simply blame the pandemic (2024)


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